/brit/

Chase Parker
Chase Parker

We're back on Jow Forums edition

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All urls found in this thread:

jowforums.com/thread/6983438/miscellaneous

Joseph Allen
Joseph Allen

wrong board
//boards.4channel.org/int/

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Matthew Wood
Matthew Wood

gay

Kayden Rivera
Kayden Rivera

Back to le sh*t board

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Eli Richardson
Eli Richardson

and redpilled

Luis Diaz
Luis Diaz

this board is fot international cultures

John Richardson
John Richardson

You and he were... buddies, weren't you?

Kayden Phillips
Kayden Phillips

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Josiah Jenkins
Josiah Jenkins

*does a post*

Parker Parker
Parker Parker

Jow Forums is an actual website, 4channel is literally a cheap Chinese knockoff

Jace Jackson
Jace Jackson

IDs in /brit/

No thanks

John Martinez
John Martinez

can I say the n-word here?

Josiah Morris
Josiah Morris

Time for Anzu

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David White
David White

if it has international in its name it doesnt mean it has anything to do with your 4channel den of scum and subhumans reddit circlejerk shit trash board in other words go back there

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Jordan Gray
Jordan Gray

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Noah Rivera
Noah Rivera

wherever there's anime to fight brits will be there

Landon King
Landon King

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Nolan Lee
Nolan Lee

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Kevin Green
Kevin Green

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Jonathan Parker
Jonathan Parker

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Jayden Williams
Jayden Williams

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Jack Barnes
Jack Barnes

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Carter Edwards
Carter Edwards

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Dylan Jones
Dylan Jones

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Oliver Sanchez
Oliver Sanchez

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Xavier Cox
Xavier Cox

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Austin Baker
Austin Baker

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Cameron Myers
Cameron Myers

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Brayden Garcia
Brayden Garcia

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Blake Cooper
Blake Cooper

nonce scum fuck off our general

Josiah Ortiz
Josiah Ortiz

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Jordan Sanchez
Jordan Sanchez

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Robert Reyes
Robert Reyes

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Tyler Morgan
Tyler Morgan

dane can fuck off
russian can stay

Lincoln Hernandez
Lincoln Hernandez

/brit/ is its own community, not part of mainstream /int/

Colton Bennett
Colton Bennett

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John Adams
John Adams

ah yes anime and foreners
loving Jow Forums so far me

Gabriel Reed
Gabriel Reed

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Thomas Thompson
Thomas Thompson

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Elijah Diaz
Elijah Diaz

this is honestly the worst thread I've ever seen

Charles Jackson
Charles Jackson

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Landon Ross
Landon Ross

we need the italian gore poster to complete the ritual

Noah Collins
Noah Collins

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Connor Taylor
Connor Taylor

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Nathaniel Foster
Nathaniel Foster

/brit/ will persevere

Ian King
Ian King

Fuck off, Jow Forums doesn't need to be divided into a million shitty country chatroom generals, that shit killed /int/ in the first place

Zachary Perez
Zachary Perez

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Daniel Carter
Daniel Carter

disturbing to think this dane is actually a human adult

Grayson Miller
Grayson Miller

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David Carter
David Carter

persevere on your containment board

Blake Martin
Blake Martin

porn dumping is against Jow Forums rules

Jayden Wilson
Jayden Wilson

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Mason Gomez
Mason Gomez

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Blake Torres
Blake Torres

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Kayden Garcia
Kayden Garcia

/brit/ cannot be contained

Connor Jones
Connor Jones

/int/ invader with his cancerous general thread pretending to care about Jow Forums's rules

Evan Russell
Evan Russell

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Ryder Nelson
Ryder Nelson

Jow Forums is good

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Ryder Foster
Ryder Foster

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Wyatt Cox
Wyatt Cox

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Carter Cruz
Carter Cruz

itt: autism

Ayden Bailey
Ayden Bailey

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Zachary Reed
Zachary Reed

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Luis Ramirez
Luis Ramirez

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Juan Ortiz
Juan Ortiz

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Austin Robinson
Austin Robinson

This is why continentals ought to be exterminated

Caleb Parker
Caleb Parker

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Ryan Sanders
Ryan Sanders

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Brayden Murphy
Brayden Murphy

kawaii animes lole

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James Barnes
James Barnes

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Jeremiah Flores
Jeremiah Flores

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Tyler Sanders
Tyler Sanders

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Luke James
Luke James

what do you do on this board for fun

William Hall
William Hall

You guys should be grateful. You finally managed to make a good /brit/ thread

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Logan Adams
Logan Adams

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Jacob Smith
Jacob Smith

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Zachary Ortiz
Zachary Ortiz

hey brits are based, stop spamming their thread with homonegroes

Dominic Murphy
Dominic Murphy

imagine voluntarily browsing Jow Forums
imagine the state your life would have to be in
see you never, lads

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Mason Reyes
Mason Reyes

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David Hill
David Hill

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Liam Gonzalez
Liam Gonzalez

Let me know if you ever want to see some more Anzu and I'll come visit your general on /int/

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Aaron Butler
Aaron Butler

/brit/ doesn't give up

post slags and crisps, lads

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Isaac Phillips
Isaac Phillips

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Aiden Jones
Aiden Jones

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Aaron Rivera
Aaron Rivera

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Asher Myers
Asher Myers

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Camden Barnes
Camden Barnes

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Nolan Bennett
Nolan Bennett

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Alexander Richardson
Alexander Richardson

come to Wakefield and l'll desiccate your cranium

Zachary Brown
Zachary Brown

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Charles Phillips
Charles Phillips

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Matthew Gonzalez
Matthew Gonzalez

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Sebastian Flores
Sebastian Flores

don't you two have anything better to do
just let us have our /brit/ thread

Jackson Garcia
Jackson Garcia

checked

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Camden Clark
Camden Clark

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Carter Bennett
Carter Bennett

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Aiden Smith
Aiden Smith

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Dylan Gonzalez
Dylan Gonzalez

we deserve one on every board

Dominic Wilson
Dominic Wilson

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Michael Torres
Michael Torres

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Logan Kelly
Logan Kelly

4channel isn't a real website.
/brit/ belongs on this board, it's international.

Elijah Cook
Elijah Cook

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Aiden Adams
Aiden Adams

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William Lee
William Lee

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Aiden Nelson
Aiden Nelson

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Oliver Taylor
Oliver Taylor

Even on /lgbt/ too I suppose

Nicholas Phillips
Nicholas Phillips

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Austin Harris
Austin Harris

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Logan Collins
Logan Collins

make /brit/ on Jow Forums
naturally becomes the most popular thread on the board

James Walker
James Walker

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Zachary Collins
Zachary Collins

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Bentley Long
Bentley Long

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Chase Diaz
Chase Diaz

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Julian Edwards
Julian Edwards

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Nicholas Harris
Nicholas Harris

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Julian Thompson
Julian Thompson

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Jordan Morales
Jordan Morales

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Ryan Young
Ryan Young

rip russiafren

Lucas Scott
Lucas Scott

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Evan Carter
Evan Carter

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Wyatt Ortiz
Wyatt Ortiz

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Levi Clark
Levi Clark

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Gabriel Hernandez
Gabriel Hernandez

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Ethan Edwards
Ethan Edwards

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Dominic Cooper
Dominic Cooper

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Anthony Bell
Anthony Bell

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Liam Allen
Liam Allen

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Noah Walker
Noah Walker

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Landon Cox
Landon Cox

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Hunter Brown
Hunter Brown

0w0

Ayden Green
Ayden Green

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Ethan Foster
Ethan Foster

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Caleb Thompson
Caleb Thompson

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Robert Wood
Robert Wood

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Mason Diaz
Mason Diaz

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Joshua Rogers
Joshua Rogers

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Josiah Rogers
Josiah Rogers

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Charles Cooper
Charles Cooper

denmark is the hero Jow Forums deserves
go back /int/ cancer

Jayden Thomas
Jayden Thomas

125 posts
15 posters

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James Evans
James Evans

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Tyler Hill
Tyler Hill

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Aiden Miller
Aiden Miller

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Dylan Brooks
Dylan Brooks

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Samuel Kelly
Samuel Kelly

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Ian Davis
Ian Davis

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Cameron Ortiz
Cameron Ortiz

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Carter Torres
Carter Torres

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Gabriel Ortiz
Gabriel Ortiz

and you didn't even sage

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Aaron Perez
Aaron Perez

this is literally every /int/ thread ever

Isaiah Davis
Isaiah Davis

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Adam Wood
Adam Wood

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Henry Roberts
Henry Roberts

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Kayden Nelson
Kayden Nelson

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Robert Clark
Robert Clark

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Jack Campbell
Jack Campbell

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Hudson Davis
Hudson Davis

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Daniel Jenkins
Daniel Jenkins

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Ryder Martinez
Ryder Martinez

fuck I forgot

William Hernandez
William Hernandez

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Gavin Butler
Gavin Butler

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Ayden Sanders
Ayden Sanders

dire

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Eli Jackson
Eli Jackson

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Tyler Turner
Tyler Turner

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Chase Bailey
Chase Bailey

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Gavin Green
Gavin Green

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Chase Ross
Chase Ross

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Jordan Jenkins
Jordan Jenkins

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Eli Barnes
Eli Barnes

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Joshua Brown
Joshua Brown

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Anthony White
Anthony White

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Mason Johnson
Mason Johnson

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Jaxson Foster
Jaxson Foster

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Nathaniel Cook
Nathaniel Cook

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Luke Ramirez
Luke Ramirez

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Colton Thomas
Colton Thomas

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Kevin Cox
Kevin Cox

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Tyler Russell
Tyler Russell

Why are you doing this

Kevin Parker
Kevin Parker

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Xavier Long
Xavier Long

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Jason Richardson
Jason Richardson

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Logan Thompson
Logan Thompson

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Landon Flores
Landon Flores

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Owen Sanchez
Owen Sanchez

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Christopher Flores
Christopher Flores

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Elijah Hernandez
Elijah Hernandez

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Ian Hughes
Ian Hughes

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Luis Garcia
Luis Garcia

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Joshua Reed
Joshua Reed

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Sebastian Clark
Sebastian Clark

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Bentley Campbell
Bentley Campbell

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Chase Robinson
Chase Robinson

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Brody Miller
Brody Miller

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Easton Rivera
Easton Rivera

this thread is 25% of the posts on Jow Forums
utter shariah state of you lot

Asher Rogers
Asher Rogers

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Elijah Cox
Elijah Cox

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Leo Turner
Leo Turner

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Evan Ward
Evan Ward

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Tyler Russell
Tyler Russell

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Eli Allen
Eli Allen

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David Hughes
David Hughes

ass

Ethan Campbell
Ethan Campbell

niggers

Nolan Stewart
Nolan Stewart

gaysex

James Jones
James Jones

autism

Jacob Allen
Jacob Allen

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Juan Wright
Juan Wright

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Xavier Fisher
Xavier Fisher

>>>/4channel/

Luis Bell
Luis Bell

cock

Logan Evans
Logan Evans

you could be the best poster on /brit/ with this shit

Cameron Green
Cameron Green

cringe

Brandon Cook
Brandon Cook

faggot

Carter Smith
Carter Smith

aaaa

Zachary Brooks
Zachary Brooks

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Lincoln Davis
Lincoln Davis

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Xavier King
Xavier King

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
aaaaaaaaaaaaa
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
aaaaaaaaaaa

Zachary Thompson
Zachary Thompson

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Josiah Long
Josiah Long

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

William Nelson
William Nelson

dabbing rn

Nicholas Baker
Nicholas Baker

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Robert Wood
Robert Wood

Adolfus ("Adolf") Hitler was born in Austria on April 20, 1889. Hitler fought for the German army during World War I. Thereafter, he was instrumental in the formation and growth of the National Socialist German Workers' Party in Germany (the NSDAP, or "Nazi" party). He was imprisoned following his failed "Beerhall Putsch" of November 11, 1923. While in Landsberg prison, he dictated a book to fellow inmate Rudolf Hess that, in 1925, was released as "Mein Kampf" (meaning "My Struggle"). In 1933, Hitler came to power in Germany. Under Hitler, Germany was set on a course of German "nationalism": a state only for persons who were held to be "Germans". The quest to extend German jurisdiction, and "Germanism", over much if not all of continental Europe eventually led to the second world war. Defeated, Hitler committed suicide shortly before the land invasion of Berlin by the Allies in 1945.

Brayden Miller
Brayden Miller

Oh look, Jow Forums being a bunch of arrogant idiots again.

Alexander Wright
Alexander Wright

It must be remembered that this is an English translation of "Mein Kampf". Berlin approved only a British translation to English of his book. This is not the version that was approved.

The book was not written by Hitler in English. Accordingly, care must be taken to compare this translation with the original German text where there exists debate over what Hitler meant, in English, by what he stated in German.

Issues of censorship have long surrounded "Mein Kampf" because of its decidedly racist, frequently anti-Semitic, content. The book is banned in many countries, including Germany. In countries with constitutional protections against such censorship, those who do not want people to read Mein Kampf have also pressured bookstores, including Barnes & Noble and even Amazon, to stop selling the book. Some other book stores have chosen not to carry the book. In such cases, the purpose has arguably been the same as the purpose of censorship: to prevent communication. Often, the result has been almost as effective: it has become much more difficult for people to purchase, and thereby read, the book.

Parker Murphy
Parker Murphy

As a case in point, shortly after the buy-out by Canadian mega bookstore Indigo of Canada's other mega bookstore, Chapters, de facto owner Heather Reisman purged Mein Kampf from the list of books sold by the 200 or so Canadian outlets of the newly amalgamated mega bookstore company. She reportedly said that she had never read the book. Though not censorship, the result in practice has been that the book will be very much more difficult to buy in Canada. This is exacerbated also by the fact that the arrival of mega bookstore such as Indigo and Chapters has resulted in the closing of many smaller bookstores that did carry "Mein Kampf".

Those who strongly encourage bookstores to choose not to sell "Mein Kampf", and those booksellers who de-list the book, argue that not selling the book is not censorship but is rather a matter of freedom of choice: the freedom of the bookseller to choose not to sell the book. Nobody is trying to censor the book, it is argued, because people can still read it in libraries. Of course, that argument is true and honest only so long as those who try to make the book more difficult to buy do not use strong-arm tactics to have the book purged from libraries, like the Mondo Politico Library. We trust that the argument is true and honest, and that Mondo Politico's freely made choice to make the book available in its library will be respected - even if not favoured - as much as a choice not to make it available.

Jordan Howard
Jordan Howard

That said, it would be wrong to interpret Mondo Politico's choice to carry "Mein Kampf" as an endorsement of the ideas in "Mein Kampf". Mondo Politico does not endorse any idea set out in any of the books included in its library. Nor does Mondo Politico endorse any political or cultural movement. Nor does Mondo Politico seek to deny historical facts. Rather, along with thousands or millions of other libraries, it simply chooses to give people access to words written by one of the most notorious political figures of the 20th century.

As with any book, we would encourage the reader to go beyond reading just the book in question. To appreciate the implications of the ideas set out in "Mein Kampf", you are strongly urged to read other, related books, including histories relating to life, and death, in the Nazi regime, and relating to the philosophy set out in the book. There exists a wealth - an infamous wealth - of information in this regard, and much of it is available for free on the Internet.

Tyler Bailey
Tyler Bailey

The human anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle")[1][2] is the external opening of the rectum. Two sphincters control the exit of feces from the body during an act of defecation, which is the primary function of the anus. These are the internal anal sphincter and the external anal sphincter, which are circular muscles that normally maintain constriction of the orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning. The inner sphincter is involuntary and the outer is voluntary. It is located behind the perineum which is located behind the vagina in females and behind the scrotum in males.

With anal sex, the anus can play a role in sexuality. Attitudes towards anal sex vary and it is illegal in some countries.[3] The anus is often considered a taboo part of the body,[3] and it is known by a large number of usually vulgar slang terms. The anus is also the site of potential infections and other conditions, including cancer.[citation needed] The traditional polite synonym for anus was fundament, though this euphemism is rarely heard now that medical terms are widely acceptable.

Jordan King
Jordan King

The anus is the final component of the gastrointestinal tract, and directly continues from the rectum. The anus passes through the pelvic floor. The anus is surrounded by muscles. The top and bottom of the anus are surrounded by the internal and external anal sphincters, two muscular rings which control defecation.[4]:397

The anus is surrounded in its length by folds called anal valves, which converge at a line known as the pectinate line. This represents the point of transition between the hindgut and the ectoderm in the embryo. Below this point, the mucosa of the internal anus becomes skin.[4] :397 The pectinate line is also the division between the internal and external anus.

The anus receives blood from the inferior rectal artery and innervation from the inferior rectal nerves, which branch from the pudendal nerve.[5]

Dylan Wood
Dylan Wood

During puberty, as testosterone triggers androgenic hair growth on the body, pubic hair begins to appear around the anus. Although initially sparse, it fills out by the end of puberty, if not earlier. However, in some genetic populations androgenic hair is less common.

Matthew Wright
Matthew Wright

Intra-rectal pressure builds as the rectum fills with feces, pushing the feces against the walls of the anal canal. Contractions of abdominal and pelvic floor muscles can create intra-abdominal pressure which further increases intra-rectal pressure. The internal anal sphincter (an involuntary muscle) responds to the pressure by relaxing, thus allowing the feces to enter the canal. The rectum shortens as feces are pushed into the anal canal and peristaltic waves push the feces out of the rectum. Relaxation of the internal and external anal sphincters allows the feces to exit from the anus, finally, as the levator ani muscles pull the anus up over the exiting feces.

Zachary Richardson
Zachary Richardson

Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.

Humans expel feces with a frequency varying from a few times daily to a few times weekly.[citation needed] Waves of muscular contraction (known as peristalsis) in the walls of the colon move fecal matter through the digestive tract towards the rectum. Undigested food may also be expelled this way, in a process called egestion.

Open defecation, the practice of defecating outside without using a toilet of any kind, is still widespread in some developing countries, for example in India

Dylan Murphy
Dylan Murphy

The rectum ampulla (anatomically also: ampulla recti) temporarily stores fecal waste. As the waste fills the rectum and expands the rectal walls, nervous system stretch receptors in the rectal walls stimulate the desire to defecate. This urge to defecate arises from the reflex contraction of rectal muscles, relaxation of the internal anal sphincter, and an initial contraction of the skeletal muscle of the external anal sphincter. If the urge is not acted upon, the material in the rectum is often returned to the colon by reverse peristalsis, where more water is absorbed and the faeces is stored until the next mass peristaltic movement of the transverse and descending colon. If defecation is delayed for a prolonged period the fecal matter may harden, resulting in constipation. If defecation occurs too fast, before excess liquid is absorbed, diarrhea may occur.[2]

William Ward
William Ward

When the rectum is full, an increase in intra-rectal pressure forces apart the walls of the anal canal, allowing the fecal matter to enter the canal. The rectum shortens as material is forced into the anal canal and peristaltic waves push the feces out of the rectum. The internal and external anal sphincters along with the puborectalis muscle allow the feces to be passed by muscles pulling the anus up over the exiting feces.[citation needed]

Defecation is normally assisted by taking a deep breath and trying to expel this air against a closed glottis (Valsalva maneuver). This contraction of expiratory chest muscles, diaphragm, abdominal wall muscles, and pelvic diaphragm exerts pressure on the digestive tract. Ventilation at this point temporarily ceases as the lungs push the chest diaphragm down to exert the pressure. Thoracic blood pressure rises and as a reflex response the amount of blood pumped by the heart decreases. Death has been known to occur in cases where defecation causes the blood pressure to rise enough to cause the rupture of an aneurysm or to dislodge blood clots (see thrombosis). Also, in releasing the Valsalva maneuver blood pressure falls; this, coupled with standing up quickly to leave the toilet, can result in a blackout.[citation needed] [3]

During defecation, the external sphincter muscles relax. The anal and urethral sphincter muscles are closely linked. Experiments by Harrison Weed at the Ohio State University Medical Center have shown they can only be contracted together, not individually, and that both show relaxation during urination.[citation needed] This explains why defecation is frequently accompanied by urination.

Evan Reyes
Evan Reyes

Defecation may be involuntary or voluntary. Young children learn voluntary control through the process of toilet training. Once trained, loss of control, called fecal incontinence, may be caused by physical injury, nerve injury, prior surgeries (such as an episiotomy), constipation, diarrhea, loss of storage capacity in the rectum, intense fright, inflammatory bowel disease, psychological or neurological factors, childbirth, or death.[4]

Aiden Adams
Aiden Adams

Toilet training, or potty training, is the process of training someone, particularly a young child, to use the toilet for urination and defecation, though training may start with a smaller toilet bowl-shaped device (often known as a potty). Cultural factors play a large part in what age is deemed appropriate, with the expectation for being potty trained ranging from 12 months for some tribes in Africa[1] to 36 months in the modern United States.[2] Most children can control their bowel before their bladder, boys typically start and finish later than girls, and it usually takes boys longer to learn to stay dry throughout the night, however it depends on the maturity and consistency of the particular child.[3]

Dylan Peterson
Dylan Peterson

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has in the past century come to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people worldwide still depend on subsistence agriculture.

Dominic Richardson
Dominic Richardson

Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, and technological developments have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage through contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, deforestation, antibiotic resistance, and growth hormones in industrially produced meat. Genetically modified organisms are widely used, although they are banned in several countries.

Sebastian Nguyen
Sebastian Nguyen

The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering.[7] Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin.[5] Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago.[8] From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops, emmer and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC,[9] followed by mung, onions and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago.[10] Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago.[11] Domestic pigs had multiple centres of origin in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia,[12] where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.[13] In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, coca, llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago,[14] and was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was domesticated to maize by 6,000 years ago.[15] Scholars have developed a number of hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism; examples are the Natufian culture in the Levant, and the Early Chinese Neolithic in China. Then,

Jose Morgan
Jose Morgan

In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC; seed-ploughs around 2,300 BC. Farmers grew wheat, barley, vegetables such as lentils and onions, and fruits including dates, grapes, and figs.[18] Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on the Nile River and its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus.[19][20] In India, wheat, barley, and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats.[21] Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC.[22][23][23][24] Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC.[25] There is archeological evidence of an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilization.[26] In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming.[27] Water-powered grain mills were in use by the 1st century BC,[28][29] followed by irrigation.[30] By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron ploughshares and mouldboards.[31][32] These slowly spread westwards across Eurasia.[33] Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate that is used[34] – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon.[35] In ancient Greece and Rome, the major cereals were wheat, emmer, and barley, alongside vegetables including peas, beans, and olives. Sheep and goats were kept mainly for dairy products.[36][37]

Juan Murphy
Juan Murphy

In the Americas, crops domesticated in Mesoamerica (apart from teosinte) include squash, beans, and cocoa.[38] Cocoa was being domesticated by the Mayo Chinchipe of the upper Amazon around 3,000 BC.[39] The turkey was probably domesticated in Mexico or the American Southwest.[40] The Aztecs developed irrigation systems, formed terraced hillsides, fertilized their soil, and developed chinampas or artificial islands. The Mayas used extensive canal and raised field systems to farm swampland from 400 BC.[41][42][43][44][45] Coca was domesticated in the Andes, as were the peanut, tomato, tobacco, and pineapple.[38] Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 3,600 BC.[46] Animals, too, including llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs were domesticated in the region.[47] In North America, the indigenous people of the East domesticated crops such as sunflower, tobacco,[48] squash and Chenopodium.[49][50] Wild foods including wild rice and maple sugar were harvested.[51] The domesticated strawberry is a hybrid of a Chilean and a North American species, developed by breeding in Europe and North America.[52] The indigenous people of the Southwest and the Pacific Northwest practiced forest gardening and fire-stick farming. The natives controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology which sustained a low-density agriculture in loose rotation; a sort of "wild" permaculture.[53][54][55][56] A system of companion planting called the Three Sisters was developed on the Great Plains, the three crops being winter squash, maize, and climbing beans.[57][58]

Isaac Barnes
Isaac Barnes

In the Middle Ages, both in the Islamic world and in Europe, agriculture was transformed with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants, including the introduction of sugar, rice, cotton and fruit trees such as the orange to Europe by way of Al-Andalus.[64][65] After 1492, the Columbian exchange brought New World crops such as maize, potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes and manioc to Europe, and Old World crops such as wheat, barley, rice and turnips, and livestock including horses, cattle, sheep and goats to the Americas.[66] Irrigation, crop rotation, and fertilizers were greatly developed in the past 200 years, starting with the British Agricultural Revolution, allowing global population to rise significantly. Since 1900, agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as human labor has been replaced by mechanization, and assisted by synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding. The Haber-Bosch method allowed the synthesis of ammonium nitrate fertilizer on an industrial scale, greatly increasing crop yields and sustaining a further increase in global population.[67][68] Modern agriculture has raised political issues including water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified organisms, tariffs and farm subsidies, leading to alternative approaches such as the organic movement.[69][70]

Carson Turner
Carson Turner

The Arab Agricultural Revolution is the transformation in agriculture from the 8th to the 13th century in the Islamic region of the Old World. The agronomic literature of the time, with major books by Ibn Bassal and Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī, demonstrates the extensive diffusion of useful plants to Medieval Spain (al-Andalus), and the growth in Islamic scientific knowledge of agriculture and horticulture. Medieval Arab historians and geographers described al-Andalus as a fertile and prosperous region with abundant water, full of fruit from trees such as the olive and pomegranate. Archaeological evidence demonstrates improvements in animal husbandry and in irrigation such as with the sakia water wheel. These changes made agriculture far more productive, supporting population growth, urbanisation, and increased stratification of society.

The revolution was first described by the historian Antonio Garcia Maceira in 1876.[1] The name[a] was coined by the historian Andrew Watson in an influential[6][8] but at the time controversial 1974 paper. However, 40 years on, it has proven useful to historians and has been supported by findings in archaeology and archaeobotany.[8]

Xavier Morales
Xavier Morales

Medieval Islamic agronomists including Ibn Bassal and Abū l-Khayr described agricultural and horticultural techniques including how to propagate the olive and the date palm, crop rotation of flax with wheat or barley, and companion planting of grape and olive.[9][11] These books demonstrate the importance of agriculture both as a traditional practice and as a scholarly science.[9] In al-Andalus, there is evidence that the almanacs and manuals of agronomy helped to catalyse change, causing scholars to seek out new kinds of vegetable and fruit, and to carry out experiments in botany; in turn, these helped to improve actual practice in the region's agriculture.[12] During the 11th century Abbadid dynasty in Seville, the sultan took a personal interest in fruit production, discovering from a peasant the method he had used to grow some exceptionally large melons—pinching off all but ten of the buds, and using wooden props to hold the stems off the ground.[12]

Parker Thomas
Parker Thomas

The Islamic period in the Fayyum depression of Middle Egypt, like medieval Islamic Spain (al-Andalus), was characterised by extremely large-scale systems of irrigation, with both the supply, via gravity-fed canals, and the management of water under local tribal control.[14] In the Islamic period in al-Andalus, whose rural parts were equally tribal,[14] the irrigation canal network was much enlarged.[15] Similarly, in the Fayyum, new villages were established in the period, and new water-dependent orchards and sugar plantations were developed.[14]
The animal-powered sakia irrigation wheel was improved in and diffused further from Islamic Spain.

The sakia[b] or animal-powered irrigation wheel was likely introduced to Islamic Spain in early Umayyad times (in the 7th century). Improvements to it were described by Hispano-Arabic agronomists in the 11th and 12th centuries. From there, sakia irrigation was spread further around Spain and Morocco.[4] A 13th century observer claimed there were "5000" waterwheels along the Guadalquivir in Islamic Spain; even allowing for medieval exaggeration,[16] irrigation systems were certainly extensive in the region at that time. The supply of water was sufficient for cities as well as agriculture: the Roman aqueduct network into the city of Cordoba was repaired in the Umayyad period, and extended.[16]

Dominic Morris
Dominic Morris

Medieval Arab historians such as Ibn Bassam, Ibn Hayyan, and Ibn Hazm, and geographers such as al-Bakri,[17][18] al-Idrisi,[19] and Al-Zuhri, described Islamic Spain as a fortunate entity.[20][21] Indeed, the tenth-century Jewish scribe Menahem Ben Saruq wrote to the Khazar king "The name of our land in which we dwell ... in the language of the Arabs, the inhabitants of the land, al-Andalus ... the land is rich, abounding in rivers, springs, and aqueducts; a land of corn, oil, and wine, of fruits and all manner of delicacies; it has pleasure-gardens and orchards, fruitful trees of every kind, including ... [the white mulberry] upon which the silkworm feeds".[21] al-Maqqari, quoting the ninth-century Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Razi, describes al-Andalus as a rich land "with good, arable soil, fertile settlements, flowing copiously with plentiful rivers and fresh springs."[21] Al-Andalus was associated with cultivated trees like olive and pomegranate. After the Christian reconquest, arable farming was frequently abandoned, the land reverting to pasture, though some farmers tried to adopt Islamic agronomy.[22] Western historians have wondered if the Medieval Arab historians were reliable, given that they had a motive to emphasize the splendour of al-Andalus, but evidence from archaeology has broadly supported their claims.[23][1]

Charles Cruz
Charles Cruz

In 1876, the historian Antonia Garcia Maceira argued that where the Romans and then the Goths who farmed in Spain made little effort to improve their crops or to import species from other regions, under "the Arabs", there was an agricultural "revolution" in Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain) caused "by implementing the knowledge that they acquired through observation during their peregrinations,[c] and the result was extensive agricultural settlement."[1]

In 1974, the historian Andrew Watson published a paper[2] proposing an extension of Garcia Maceira's hypothesis of agricultural revolution in Al-Andalus.[24][d] Watson argued that the economy established by Arab and other Muslim traders across the Old World enabled the diffusion of many crops and farming techniques throughout the Islamic world, as well as the adaptation of crops and techniques from and to regions outside it. Crops from Africa, such as sorghum, from China, such as citrus fruits, and from India, such as mango, rice, cotton and sugar cane, were distributed throughout Islamic lands, which he believed had not previously grown these plants.[2] He listed eighteen such crops.[25][e] Watson suggested that these introductions, along with an increased mechanization of agriculture and irrigation, led to major changes in economy, population distribution, vegetation cover,[26] agricultural production and income, population, urban growth, distribution of the labour force, industries linked to agriculture, cooking, diet and clothing in the Islamic world.[2]

David Morales
David Morales

In 1997, the historian of science Howard R. Turner wrote that Islamic study of soil, climate, seasons and ecology "promoted a remarkably advanced horticulture and agriculture. The resulting knowledge, transmitted to Europe after the eleventh century, helped to improve farming techniques, widen the variety of crops, and increase yields on the continent's farmlands. In addition, an enormous variety of crops was introduced to the West from or through Muslim lands".[27]

The historian of Islam Salah Zaimeche stated in 2002 that the "accepted wisdom" that agriculture was not improved until the last few centuries in Europe had been overturned by work by Watson, Thomas Glick[28] and L. Bolens[29] among others.[11]

In 2006, James E. McClellan III and Harold Dorn stated in their book Science and Technology in World History that Islam had depended as much on its farmers as its soldiers, and that the farmers had helped to create a "scientific civilisation": "in what amounted to an agricultural revolution they adapted new and more diversified food crops to the Mediterranean ecosystem: rice, sugar cane, cotton, melons, citrus fruits, and other products. With rebuilt and enlarged systems of irrigation, Islamic farming extended the growing season and increased productivity."[30] They stated further that the importance of these efforts was indicated by the "uninterrupted series" of books on nd, or Aljarafe, their laboratory."[13]

Blake Moore
Blake Moore

Watson's work was met with some early scepticism, such as from the historian Jeremy Johns in 1984. Johns argued that Watson's selection of 18 plants was "peculiar", since the banana, coconut, mango and shaddock were unimportant in the Islamic region at the time, detracting from the discussion of the staple crops. Johns further noted that the evidence of diffusion of crops was imperfect, that Watson made "too many minor slips and larger errors" such as getting dates wrong or claiming that a 1439 document was Norman, and had failed to make best use of the evidence that was available, such as of the decline of classical agriculture, or even to mention the changing geomorphology. Johns however concluded that "The hypothesis of an 'Abbasid agricultural revolution is challenging and may well prove useful".[31][32]

Henry Foster
Henry Foster

In 2009, the historian Michael Decker[37][f] stated that widespread cultivation and consumption of four staples, namely durum wheat, Asiatic rice, sorghum and cotton were already commonplace under the Roman Empire and Sassanid Empire, centuries before the Islamic period.[37] He suggested that their actual role in Islamic agriculture had been exaggerated, arguing that the agricultural practices of Muslim cultivators did not fundamentally differ from those of pre-Islamic times, but evolved from the hydraulic know-how and 'basket' of agricultural plants inherited from their Roman and Persian predecessors.[38] In the case of cotton, which the Romans grew mainly in Egypt, the plant remained a minor crop in the classical Islamic period: the major fibre was flax, as in Roman times.[39] Decker further asserted that the advanced state of ancient irrigation practices "rebuts sizeable parts of the Watson thesis," since for example in Spain, archaeological work indicated that the Islamic irrigation system was developed from the existing Roman network, rather than replacing it.[40] Decker agreed that "Muslims made an important contribution to world farming through the westward diffusion of some crops", but that the introduction of "agronomic techniques and materials" had been less widespread and less consistent than Watson had suggested.[37] Furthermore, there is clear evidence that agricultural devices such as watermills and waterwheels, shadufs, norias, sakias, water screws and water pumps were widely known and applied in Greco-Roman agriculture long before the Muslim conquests.[41][42]

Juan Reed
Juan Reed

In a Muslim context, Islamic studies is the umbrella term for the Islamic sciences ('Ulum al-din). It includes all the traditional forms of religious thought, such as kalam (Islamic theology) and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), but also incorporates fields generally considered secular in the West, such as Islamic science and Islamic economics.

In a non-Muslim context, Islamic studies generally refers to the historical study of Islam: Islamic civilization, Islamic history and historiography, Islamic law, Islamic theology and Islamic philosophy. Academics from diverse disciplines participate and exchange ideas about Islamic societies, past and present, although Western, academic Islamic studies itself is in many respects a self-conscious and self-contained field. Specialists in the discipline apply methods adapted from several ancillary fields, ranging from Biblical studies and classical philology to modern history, legal history and sociology. A recent trend, particularly since 9/11, has been the study of contemporary Islamist groups and movements by academics from the social sciences or in many cases by journalists, although since such works tend to be written by non-Arabists they belong outside the field of Islamic studies proper.

Dominic Rodriguez
Dominic Rodriguez

dick

Carter Cruz
Carter Cruz

The hairy-eared dwarf lemur (Allocebus trichotis), or hairy-eared mouse lemur, is one of the most scarcely known lemurs.[5] A. trichotis is a nocturnal lemur that is endemic to Madagascar. It was originally named by Dr. Albert Günther in 1875 as Cheirogaleus trichotis as part of the Cheirogaleidae family, or the dwarf lemurs. However, in 1967 Petter-Rousseaux and Petter reassigned the lemur to its own genus and is the now only member of the genus Allocebus. [6] The hairy-eared dwarf lemur was thought to be extinct until its rediscovery in 1989 in a northeastern primary lowland rainforest.[7] The population of these mammals is shown to be severely decreasing and largely fragmented throughout Northern and Eastern Madagascar rainforests; most likely due to hunting, trapping, slash-and-burn agriculture as well as habitat fragmentation.[8]

Julian Cook
Julian Cook

Allocebus trichotis is thought to have been discovered as early as 1875 by Dr. Albert Günther. The species was initially only studied from 5 museum specimens that are housed in 3 collections in various locations in London, Paris and Stockholm[7] and was thought to be extinct in the wild. The hairy-eared dwarf lemur was then rediscovered in the wild in 1989 by Bernhard Meier when a small population was found in Northern Madagascar in a remote primary lowland rain forest.[7] Researchers have also discovered the species living in a primary highland rainforest in eastern Madagascar in a very popular tourist location, Andasibe, Vavatenina.[5] Small populations, as few as one A. trichotis, have also been located in other areas of Madagascar; indicating a more widespread distribution than previously thought.[5]

Easton Howard
Easton Howard

The hairy-eared dwarf lemur is likely to be critically endangered and the population is estimated anywhere from 100–1000 individuals.[7] In 2008, the species was ranked as "data deficient" by the IUCN Red List, but is now classified as "vulnerable" according to the 2012 IUCN Red List.[11] Research has shown that the distribution of this lemur is patchy, restrictive and they all live in a single location in specific parts of Madagascar,[1][5][7][12] but the species may be more widely distributed than previously thought.[5] All of the species that have been located in eastern Madagascar were found at the edge of primary highland rain forest at elevations anywhere from 680 to 1235 meters[5] and all of the species located in northeast Madagascar were located in primary lowland rain forests.[7] Locals of Madagascar call A. trichotis "tsidy ala", which translates to "the mouse lemur of the big forest."[13] Currently, there are a few known predators of A. trichotis; data shows that Malagasy carnivores (Eupleridae) and owls (Strigiformes) as well as humans are a threat.[14]

Blake Perry
Blake Perry

A. trichotis seems to confide in live or dead fallen trees for its nesting and sleeping sites; usually in a hollow located within the trees.[5][7] Observations show that the lemurs tend to build nests with a deep layer of straw or leaves and since they are exclusively nocturnal, they spend their days sleeping in the same tree hollow and cover themselves with the straw or leaves. The lemurs become active as soon as it becomes dusk and they remain active until the very first sign of light in the morning.[7] While active, the lemurs have been observed to leap frequently through the tree branches.[7] Once the lemurs return to their tree hollows, they were consistently observed sleeping with another of the same species and demonstrated acts of social grooming.[7] They have been observed to be less active and can hardly be found during the dry season (June–September) by researchers as well as locals.[5][7] There is not much information on their diet in the wild, but in captivity the lemurs were observed to eat various insects such as small/medium locusts, were often observed trying to catch flies outside of their cage, and consuming various fruits. The species is predicted to consume nectar and tree sap in the wild because they have an extraordinarily long tongue. The lemurs also have been observed eating while hanging upside down on a branch.[7]

In the wild, up to 4 juveniles have reportedly been found in one tree hole. It is predicted that gestation occurs at the beginning of the wet season (November–December) and that they give birth in January–February; if their reproductive patterns are similar to other lemur species such as Microcebus and Cheirogaleus.

Isaiah Hill
Isaiah Hill

A. trichotis has numerous threats, which most likely explains their low population size. Humans seem to have the largest impact on these mammals with acts such as deforestation, localized hunting and trapping for human consumption, and destruction of its rain forest habitat (primarily due to slash-and-burn agriculture).

Because the species is extremely difficult to locate due to its similarity to Microcebus rufus,[5] distribution is recorded as being restricted and patchy with an overall low population density and the populations are rapidly declining in numbers due to rapid destruction of habitat.[7]

Currently, there are species being held in captivity that are consistently being observed, with breeding programs designed to learn more about the animals and increasing the population size. Long-term research studies are also ongoing with hopes of finding out more about the mammal's ecology, habitat, distribution, social organization and competition in order to protect the species.[5][7]

Conservationists want to expand protected parks to areas where the lemurs were located in the eastern highland rain forests and are currently unprotected, increasing the risk of extinction for the species.[5]

Liam White
Liam White

1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1943rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 943rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1940s decade.

Kevin Nelson
Kevin Nelson

The Soviet Union announced that 22 German divisions in Stalingrad had been encircled by the Red Army, and that 175,000 of the enemy had been killed and 137,650 captured.[1]
The Battle of Gjorm began between Albanian Resistance fighters and Italian forces.
The Georgia Bulldogs defeated the UCLA Bruins, 9-0, in the Rose Bowl before a crowd of 93,000 as the postseason college football game returned to Pasadena, California.[2] Georgia had been ranked #2 in the final Associated Press poll, while #1 Ohio State did not play in a bowl game.
Born: Don Novello, American comedian known for the character "Father Guido Sarducci" on Saturday Night Live, and as Lazlo Toth in The Lazlo Letters; in Lorain, Ohio

Anthony Miller
Anthony Miller

General Hideki Tojo, Prime Minister of Japan, determining that the Allies' Guadalcanal Campaign was overcoming Japanese defense, ordered Japan's forces to evacuate Guadalcanal by the end of February. General Hitoshi Imamura would oversee the withdrawal of 10,000 troops from the island in the Solomons chain, abandoning the stronghold to the United States.[8]
A group of 300 men of the Jewish Fighting Organization tried to launch an uprising in the Częstochowa Ghetto, located in the Polish city of Częstochowa. The attempt was unsuccessful, and as punishment, the Nazi German occupiers shot 250 children and old people the next day. The remaining occupants would be shipped out to concentration camps by June.[9]
Greek-Polish athlete and saboteur Jerzy Iwanow-Szajnowicz was executed by the Germans at Kaisariani, Athens.
Born: Doris Kearns Goodwin, American writer, historian, and presidential biographer, in Rockville Centre, New York

Ayden Ross
Ayden Ross

Pierre Jean-Marie Laval (French pronunciation: [pjɛʁ laval]; 28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician. During the time of the Third Republic, he served as Prime Minister of France from 27 January 1931 to 20 February 1932, and a second time from 7 June 1935 to 24 January 1936.

Laval began his career as a socialist, but over time drifted far to the right. Following France's defeat and armistice with Germany in 1940, he served in prominent roles in Philippe Pétain's Vichy Regime, first as the vice-president of the Council of Ministers from 11 July 1940 to 13 December 1940, and later as the head of government from 18 April 1942 to 20 August 1944.

After the liberation of France in 1944, Laval was arrested by the French government under General Charles de Gaulle. In what was widely regarded as a flawed trial, Laval was found guilty of high treason, and after a thwarted suicide attempt, he was executed by firing squad.[2] His manifold political activities left a complicated and controversial legacy, resulting in more than a dozen conflicting biographies of him.

Robert Williams
Robert Williams

During the Phoney War, Laval was cautiously ambivalent towards the conflict. He was on record as saying that although the war could have been avoided by diplomatic means, it was now up to the government to prosecute it with the utmost vigour.[26]

On 9 June 1940, the Germans were advancing on a front of more than 250 kilometres (160 mi) in length across the entire width of France. As far as General Maxime Weygand was concerned, "if the Germans crossed the Seine and the Marne, it was the end."[27] Simultaneously, Marshal Philippe Pétain was increasing the pressure upon Prime Minister Paul Reynaud to call for an armistice. During this time Laval was in Châteldon. On 10 June, in view of the German advance, the government left Paris for Tours. Weygand had informed Reynaud: "the final rupture of our lines may take place at any time." If that happened "our forces would continue to fight until their strength and resources were extinguished. But their disintegration would be no more than a matter of time."[28] Weygand had avoided using the word armistice, but it was on the minds of all those involved. Reynaud was opposed to an armistice.

Daniel Powell
Daniel Powell

In 1943, Laval became the nominal leader of the newly created Milice, though its operational leader was Secretary General Joseph Darnand.[44]

When the Allied landings in French North Africa (Operation Torch) began, the Wehrmacht occupied the Zone libre. Hitler continued to ask whether the French government was prepared to fight at his side, requiring Vichy to declare war against Britain. Laval and Pétain agreed to maintain a firm refusal. During this time and the Normandy landings in 1944, Laval was in a struggle against ultra-collaborationist ministers.

In a speech broadcast on the Normandy landings' D-day, he appealed to the nation:

Ethan King
Ethan King

fuck off back to 4channel

Ethan Howard
Ethan Howard

Topkek.
Keep it up.

Oliver Gomez
Oliver Gomez

Two trials were to be held. Although it had its faults, the Pétain trial permitted the presentation and examination of a vast amount of pertinent material.[discuss] Scholars including Robert Paxton and Geoffrey Warner believe that Laval's trial demonstrated the inadequacies of the judicial system and the poisonous political atmosphere of that purge-trial era.[51][52] During his imprisonment pending the verdict of his treason trial, Laval wrote his only book, his posthumously published Diary (1948). His daughter, Josée de Chambrun, smuggled it out of the prison page by page.[53]

Laval firmly believed that he would be able to convince his fellow-countrymen that he had been acting in their best interests all along. "Father-in-law wants a big trial which will illuminate everything", René de Chambrun told Laval's lawyers: "If he is given time to prepare his defence, if he is allowed to speak, to call witnesses and to obtain from abroad the information and documents which he needs, he will confound his accusers."[54] "Do you want me to tell you the set-up?" Laval asked one of his lawyers on 4 August. "There will be no pre-trial hearings and no trial. I will be condemned – and got rid of – before the elections."[55]

Evan Bennett
Evan Bennett

aasssniigersaawd

Mason Thompson
Mason Thompson

All three of his lawyers declined to be in court to hear the reading of the formal charges, saying "We fear that the haste which has been employed to open the hearings is inspired, not by judicial preoccupations, but motivated by political considerations." In lieu of attending the hearing, they sent letters stating the shortcomings and asked to be discharged as counsel.[57] The court carried on without them. The president of the court, Pierre Mongibeaux, announced the trial had to be completed before the general election scheduled for 21 October.[58] Mongibeaux and Mornet, the public prosecutor, were unable to control constant hostile outbursts from the jury. These occurred as increasingly heated exchanges between Mongibeaux and Laval became louder and louder. On the third day, Laval's three lawyers were with him as the President of the Bar Association had advised them to resume their duties.[59]

Juan Powell
Juan Powell

Annick Girardin (born 3 August 1964 in Saint-Malo, Ille-et-Vilaine) is a French government minister and a former member of the National Assembly of France. She represented the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon,[1] from 2007 to 2014 before being appointed Junior Minister for Development and Francophonie in April 2014 in the Valls Cabinet. Following the election of President Emmanuel Macron in May 2017, she was appointed Minister of Overseas France in the new Philippe Government.

Tyler Evans
Tyler Evans

High-niece of the councilor of Saint-Pierre and senator Henri Claireaux,[2] she is the eldest of a sibship of four children; her mother is a housewife and her father, after fishing activities, ran a family bakery business. She lived until the age of six at her grandfather's, a chief of public works. She becomes a mother at the age of sixteen of a girl, future weather presenter and host of a cooking show on the local TV channel.[3] His companion is Jean-François Vigneau, territorial advisor of Saint Pierre and Miquelon who succeeds in 2016 to the advisory commission of local public services.

She holds the diploma of socio-cultural animator.[4]

In March 2016, journalists Sylvie Koffi and Shaman Dolpi devoted a 52-minute documentary film, "Annick, the pirate of hope", a co-production France Télévisions and AYA Reportage, with the participation of TV5Monde. The film, which looks back on its journey, took six months of filming, from Saint-Malo to Saint Pierre and Miquelon via Mali and Tunisia.[5]

Colton Hall
Colton Hall

Annick Girardin is a member of the Radical Party of the Left (PRG).She is also a member of the PRG's Executive Board since 2012. Annick Girardin has been a member of Territorial Council of Saint Pierre and Miquelon from March 2000 to April 2016.[6] She was also a Municipal councillor of Saint-Pierre from 18 March 2001 to 15 February 2002.

During the French Socialist Party presidential primary of 2017, she supports Sylvia Pinel.[7] In the presidential election of 2017, she supports the candidate of En Marche!, Emmanuel Macron.[8]

Isaac Murphy
Isaac Murphy

On May 17, 2017, Annick Girardin was appointed Minister of Overseas Territories in the Édouard Philippe government[15].Candidate in the 2017 legislative election of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, she is reelected in the second round with 51.87% of the vote. She sits for a month in the National Assembly, where she is a member of the La République en marche group. She keeps her ministry.[16]

In September 2017, she manages the file of the destruction caused by hurricane Irma in Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthélemy[17].

In March 2018, she is confronted with the management of a social unrest in Mayotte, the inhabitants protesting against illegal immigration and delinquency[18]. She goes on the spot on March 12[19]. On May 15, 2018, Annick Girardin presents her catch-up plan for the department of Mayotte. It is broken down into six chapters (security, justice and immigration, health, social, education and training, housing, infrastructure, state institutions and services), 53 commitments and 125 actions for a total cost of 1.3 billion euros out of national education staff[20].

Adam Green
Adam Green

This category is located at Category:Women in politics.

Note: This category should be empty.

See the instructions for more information.

Ryder Cruz
Ryder Cruz

Categories allow articles to be placed in one or more groups, and allow those groups to be further categorized. When an article belongs to a category, it will contain a special link to a page that describes the category. Similarly, when a sub-category belongs to a parent category, it will contain a special link to the parent category's page. Each category page contains an introduction that can be edited like an article, and an automatically generated list of links to sub-categories and articles that belong to the category. Categories do not form a strict hierarchy or tree of categories, since each article can appear in more than one category, and each category can appear in more than one parent category. This allows multiple categorization schemes to co-exist simultaneously. It is possible to construct loops in the category space, but this is discouraged.

Julian Butler
Julian Butler

Okay, now this is epic

Kayden Lee
Kayden Lee

The best way to find out what exists is to browse. Either start at Wikipedia:Browse or start at Category:Articles, which shows the "top" level categories, to which all other categories should be connected. A list of all categories can be found at Special:Categories – there are many thousands listed but you can jump through them using the search box. Category:Wikipedia categories is the standard top-level category provided by the MediaWiki software, but orphan categories (categories without any parent categories) can exist. Category Tree browser at the Toolserver is a JavaScript category browser, but it is marked "deprecated". Cat Scan, also at the Toolserver, can be used to find subcategories. Wikipedia:Category schemes shows designs that predate the category feature. Some high-level categories can be found at Wikipedia:Categorization#Current projects.

Matthew Peterson
Matthew Peterson

Grouping articles into a category is not the same as making a list of articles. To make a list of articles, you edit the list directly; but to place articles into a category, you edit each article and insert a category tag by placing [[Category:category_name]] in the body of the text. This automatically adds those articles as a list on the category's page. Despite the difference in how they are maintained, it is sometimes convenient to think of a category as a list of articles. While an article may be in multiple lists, the goal is that browsing downwards from a list parent category, e.g. Category:People, should only arrive at articles that are about people, e.g. John Lennon, and not related articles e.g. 251 Menlove Avenue. There are some natural hierarchies of lists. One example is the scientific classification of organisms, which would only place an article in one category. Other systems use multiple listings, e.g. Wikipedia could be in Category:Wikis and Category:Encyclopedias. List categories are likely to also be subcategories of topic categories. Maintaining and tracking categories often requires more effort than a simple list. If you have a category that has vague criteria or that adds and removes members frequently, then maintaining a simple list is often more appropriate. Further information on this topic can be found at Wikipedia:Categories, lists, and navigation templates.

Robert Ramirez
Robert Ramirez

Many articles have "info-boxes"—side-boxes or footers linking to other articles and lists, sometimes using Wikipedia:Templates. Some of these are listed at Wikipedia:Navigation templates. While some info-boxes are made redundant, others have useful grouping of the cross-references that cannot be done with categories. See also: Wikipedia:Categories, lists, and navigation templates, Wikipedia:Article series, Wikipedia:Incumbent series.

Sebastian Lewis
Sebastian Lewis

This page contains guidance on the proper use of the categorization function in Wikipedia. For information on the mechanics of the function, category syntax, etc., see Help:Category. For quick answers, see the Categorization FAQ. For proposals to delete, merge, or rename categories, follow the instructions at Categories for discussion. Please use it before undertaking any complicated re-categorization of existing categories or mass creation of new categories.

The central goal of the category system is to provide navigational links to Wikipedia pages in a hierarchy of categories which readers, knowing essential—defining—characteristics of a topic, can browse and quickly find sets of pages on topics that are defined by those characteristics.

Categories are not the only means of enabling users to browse sets of related pages. Other tools which may be used instead of or alongside categories in particular instances include lists and navigation boxes. For a comparison of these techniques, see Categories, lists and navigation templates.

Nolan Mitchell
Nolan Mitchell

After you have determined an appropriate category name and know its parent category, you are ready to create the new category. To create a category, first add an article to that category. Do this by editing the article page. At the bottom, but before the interwiki links (if any are present), add the name of the new category, (e.g.: [[Category:New category name]] ), and save your edit. The as-yet-undefined category name will now appear as a red link in the article's category list at the bottom of the page.

Next, to create the category, click on that red link, which brings you back into the editor. Adding this new category into the appropriate parent category is much the same as with an article: at the bottom, simply add the parent category (e.g.: [[Category:Parent category name]] ), which should usually be a hypernym of the sub-category.

Sometimes, a common-sense guess based on the title of the category isn't enough to figure out whether a page should be listed in the category. So, rather than leave the text of a category page empty (containing only parent category declarations), it is helpful – to both readers and editors – to include a description of the category, indicating what pages it should contain, how they should be subcategorized, and so on.

Nolan Lopez
Nolan Lopez

In such cases, the desired contents of the category should be described on the category page, similar to how the list selection criteria are described in a stand-alone list. The category description should make direct statements about the criteria by which pages should be selected for inclusion in (or exclusion from) the category. This description, not the category's name, defines the proper content of the category. Do not leave future editors to guess about what or who should be included from the title of the category. Even if the selection criteria might seem obvious to you, an explicit standard is helpful to others, especially if they are less familiar with the subject.

The description can also contain links to other Wikipedia pages, in particular to other related categories which do not appear directly as subcategories or parent categories, and to relevant categories at sister projects, such as Commons. Another technique that can be used is described at Wikipedia:Classification. Like disambiguation pages, category pages should not contain either citations to reliable sources or external links.

Carter Morris
Carter Morris

Every Wikipedia page should belong to at least one category. (However, there is no need to categorize talk pages, redirects, or user pages, though these may be placed in categories where appropriate.) In addition, each categorized page should be placed in all of the most specific categories to which it logically belongs. This means that if a page belongs to a subcategory of C (or a subcategory of a subcategory of C, and so on) then it is not normally placed directly into C. For exceptions to this rule, see Eponymous categories and Non-diffusing subcategories below.

While it should typically be clear from the name of an existing category which pages it should contain, the text of the category page may sometimes provide additional information on potential category contents. One way to determine if suitable categories already exist for a particular page is to check the categories of pages concerning similar or related topics. Another way is to search existing category names as described here (top of page). Since all categories form part of a hierarchy, do not add categories to pages as if they are tags.

Daniel Davis
Daniel Davis

The place of birth, although it may be significant from the perspective of local studies, is rarely defining from the perspective of an individual.

People are sometimes categorized by notable residence, in the form People from Foo (not "Natives of Foo"), regardless of ethnicity, heritage, or nationality. Residential categories should not be used to record people who have never resided in that place. Nationality is reflected by the occupation category (above), not country or county or city of residence.

Jordan Taylor
Jordan Taylor

If the article is titled "Forename Surname", the category should be added to the article as [[Category:Type X people|Surname, Forename]] (or: {{DEFAULTSORT:Surname, Forename}}) so that it will be sorted by surname (surname and family name are used interchangeably in this article). However, there are exceptions depending on customs, where a person lives and when they lived. If the country is not listed, try consulting with Names of persons : national usages for entry in catalogue in the bibliography section. It is a resource for how librarians and institutions inside their respective country sorts names. However, the sort value may be inappropriate outside their country.[2]

Noah Gutierrez
Noah Gutierrez

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO /ˈneJtoʊ/; French: Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949.[3][4] NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO’s Headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium.

Luke Campbell
Luke Campbell

Since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29. The most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro on 5 June 2017. NATO currently recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Macedonia and Ukraine as aspiring members.[5] An additional 21 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total.[6] Members have committed to reach or maintain defense spending of at least 2% of GDP by 2024.[7][8]

Brandon Nelson
Brandon Nelson

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states (the Eastern Bloc), and the United States with its allies (the Western Bloc) after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins with 1946, the year U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U.S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, and ending between the Revolutions of 1989 and the 1991 collapse of the USSR, which ended communism in Eastern Europe. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional wars known as proxy wars.

Jeremiah Rogers
Jeremiah Rogers

The Cold War split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the Soviet Union and the United States as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The USSR was a Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a leader with different titles over time, and a small committee called the Politburo. The Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy and many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, and funded Communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with Communist China, particularly following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. In opposition stood the capitalist West, led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system. The First World nations of the Western Bloc were generally liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes throughout the Third World, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.[1][2] Some major Cold War frontlines such as Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947.

Luke Perry
Luke Perry

A neutral bloc arose with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were heavily armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war. Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction (MAD). Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, and their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargos, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race.

Thomas King
Thomas King

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. As of 2012, the movement has 120 members.[1]

It was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. An initiative of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito and Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru [3] led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries.[4] The term non-aligned movement appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as "members of the movement".

The purpose of the organization has been enumerated as to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics," by Fidel Castro in his Havana Declaration of 1979.[5] The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is particularly concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, though the Non-Aligned Movement also has a number of developed nations.

Landon Wilson
Landon Wilson

Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Jocип Бpoз, pronounced [jǒsip brôːz]; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (/ˈtiːtoʊ/;[1] Cyrillic: Tитo, pronounced [tîto]), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.[2] During World War II, he was the leader of the Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe.[3] While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian[4][5] and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, some historians consider him a benevolent dictator.[6] He was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad.[7] Viewed as a unifying symbol,[8] his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation. He gained further international attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, alongside Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Sukarno of Indonesia, and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.[9]

Levi Harris
Levi Harris

Broz was born to a Croat father and Slovene mother in the village of Kumrovec, Austria-Hungary (now in Croatia). Drafted into military service, he distinguished himself, becoming the youngest sergeant major in the Austro-Hungarian Army of that time. After being seriously wounded and captured by the Imperial Russians during World War I, he was sent to a work camp in the Ural Mountains. He participated in some events of the Russian Revolution in 1917 and subsequent Civil War. Upon his return home, Broz found himself in the newly established Kingdom of Yugoslavia, where he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ).

Robert Foster
Robert Foster

He was General Secretary (later Chairman of the Presidium) of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (1939–1980) and went on to lead the World War II Yugoslav guerrilla movement, the Partisans (1941–1945).[10] After the war, he was the Prime Minister (1944–1963), President (later President for Life) (1953–1980) of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). From 1943 to his death in 1980, he held the rank of Marshal of Yugoslavia, serving as the supreme commander of the Yugoslav military, the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). With a highly favourable reputation abroad in both Cold War blocs, he received some 98 foreign decorations, including the Legion of Honour and the Order of the Bath.

Kayden Cox
Kayden Cox

The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Verdienstorden der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, or Bundesverdienstorden, BVO[2]) is the only federal decoration of Germany. It was created by the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany, Theodor Heuss, on 7 September 1951, and has been awarded to over 200,000 individuals in total, both Germans and foreigners. Since the 1990s the number of annual awards has declined from over 4,000, first to around 2,300–2,500 per year, and now under 2,000, with a low of 1752 in 2011. In recent years women have made up a steady 30–31% of recipients.[3] Colloquially, the decorations of the different classes of the Order are also known as the Federal Cross of Merit (Bundesverdienstkreuz).

Most of the German federal states (Länder) have each their own order of merit as well, with the exception of the Free and Hanseatic Cities of Bremen and Hamburg, which reject any orders (by old tradition their citizens, particularly former or present senators, will refuse any decoration in the form of an order — the most famous example: former Chancellor Helmut Schmidt).[4]

Anthony Sanders
Anthony Sanders

The order was established on 7 September 1951 by the decree of the then Federal President Theodor Heuss.[5] The decree, which was co-signed by the President Heuss together with Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and the Minister of the Interior, Robert Lehr, signed, states:

Desiring to visibly express recognition and gratitude to deserving men and women of the German people and of foreign countries, on the second Anniversary of the Federal Republic of Germany, I establish the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is awarded for achievements that served the rebuilding of the country in the fields of political, socio-economic and intellectual activity, and is intended to mean an award of all those whose work contributes to the peaceful rise of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Jayden Martinez
Jayden Martinez

The Independence Day Award (Bengali: স্বাধীনতা পদক),[1] also termed Independence Award (Bengali: স্বাধীনতা পুরস্কার), Swadhinata Padak, and Swadhinata Puroskar, is the highest state award given by the government of Bangladesh.[2] Introduced in 1977, this award is bestowed upon Bangladeshi citizens or organizations in recognition of substantial contribution to one of many fields, including the War of Liberation, the Language Movement, education, literature, journalism, public service, science and technology, medical science, social science, song, games and sports, fine arts, rural development, and other areas.[3]

Each awardee receives a gold medal, a certificate of honour, and a sum of cash.[2] The amount of the cash reward was originally 20,000 takas,[4] but was subsequently increased to 100,000 takas in 2004.[4] A cabinet committee on national awards prepares the list of each year's nominees and forwards the list to the head of the government for final approval.[5] The award is traditionally presented on the eve of Independence day in Bangladesh at a much publicized ceremony attended by several cabinet and parliament members and distinguished society guests.

Jayden Gomez
Jayden Gomez

An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process. Extrajudicial punishments are mostly seen by humanity to be unethical, since they bypass the due process of the legal jurisdiction in which they occur.[citation needed] Extrajudicial killings often target leading political, trade union, dissident, religious, and social figures and are only those carried out by the state government or other state authorities like the armed forces or police, as extra-legal fulfillment of their prescribed role.

Section 3(a) of the United States Torture Victim Protection Act contains a definition of extrajudicial killing:

a deliberate killing not authorized by a previous judgment pronounced by a regular constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples. Such term, however, does not include any such killing that, under international law, is lawfully carried out under the authority of a foreign nation.[1][a]

Luke Cruz
Luke Cruz

Extrajudicial killings and death squads are common in Syria,[2][3][4] Iraq,[5][6][7][8][9] Egypt,[10][11][12][13][14] Libya,[15] Central America,[16][17] India,[18][19][20] Mexico,[21] Colombia,[22] Brazil,[23][24][25][26][27] Venezuela,[28][29] Indonesia,[30] Afghanistan,[31] Pakistan,[32] Bangladesh,[33][34][35] several nations or regions in Africa,[36][37][38][39][40] including the Democratic Republic of the Congo[41] and Burundi,[42][43] Jamaica,[44][45][46] Kosovo,[47] Russia,[48][49] Uzbekistan, parts of Thailand,[50] Turkey,[51][52][53][54][55] in the Philippines,[56][57][58][59][60][61][62] Tajikistan,[63][64]El Salvador,[65] Papua New Guinea,[41][66][67] and by Israeli forces.[68][69][70] One of the most recent issues regarding extrajudicial killing has been the debate about the legal and moral status of targeted killing by unmanned aerial vehicles by the United States.

Ryder Lewis
Ryder Lewis

A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes such as political repression, assassinations, torture, genocide, ethnic cleansing, or revolutionary terror.[citation needed] These killings are often conducted in ways meant to ensure the secrecy of the killers' identities. Death squads may have the support of domestic or foreign governments (see state terrorism). They may comprise a secret police force, paramilitary militia groups, government soldiers, policemen, or combinations thereof. They may also be organized as vigilantes. When death squads are not controlled by the state, they may consist of insurgent forces or organized crime, such as the ones used by Mexican cartels.

Einsatzgruppen were paramilitary death squads created by Nazi Germany during the Holocaust. These groups were mainly made up of police officers who killed more than two million people, including 1.3 million Jews.[2][3]

Juan Turner
Juan Turner

Einsatzgruppen[a] (German: [ˈʔaJnzatsˌɡʁʊpn̩], "task forces"[1] or "deployment groups")[2] were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45). The Einsatzgruppen were involved in the murder of much of the intelligentsia, including members of the priesthood,[3] and cultural elite of Poland, and had an integral role in the implementation of the so-called "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" (Die Endlösung der Judenfrage) in territories conquered by Nazi Germany. Almost all of the people they killed were civilians, beginning with the intelligentsia and swiftly progressing to Soviet political commissars, Jews, and Romani people as well as actual or alleged partisans throughout Eastern Europe.

Nathaniel Rogers
Nathaniel Rogers

Under the direction of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and the supervision of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, the Einsatzgruppen operated in territories occupied by the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) following the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. The Einsatzgruppen worked hand-in-hand with the Orpo Police Battalions on the Eastern Front to carry out operations ranging from the murder of a few people to operations which lasted over two or more days, such as the massacre at Babi Yar with 33,771 Jews killed in two days, and the Rumbula massacre (with about 25,000 killed in two days of shooting). As ordered by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, the Wehrmacht cooperated with the Einsatzgruppen and provided logistical support for their operations. Historian Raul Hilberg estimates that between 1941 and 1945 the Einsatzgruppen and related auxiliary troops killed more than two million people, including 1.3 million Jews. The total number of Jews murdered during the Holocaust is estimated at 5.5 to 6 million people.

After the close of World War II, 24 senior leaders of the Einsatzgruppen were prosecuted in the Einsatzgruppen Trial in 1947–48, charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes. Fourteen death sentences and two life sentences were handed out. Four additional Einsatzgruppe leaders were later tried and executed by other nations.

Jonathan Lopez
Jonathan Lopez

During World War II, the Nazi German Einsatzkommandos were a sub-group of five Einsatzgruppen mobile killing squads (term used by Holocaust historians) – up to 3,000 men total – usually composed of 500–1,000 functionaries of the SS and Gestapo, whose mission was to exterminate Jews, Polish intellectuals, Romani, homosexuals, communists and the NKVD collaborators in the captured territories often far behind the advancing German front.[1][2] After the outbreak of war with the Soviet Union with Operation Barbarossa, the Red Army began to retreat so rapidly that the large Einsatzgruppen had to be split into dozens of smaller commandos (Einsatzkommandos), responsible for systematically killing Jews and, among others, alleged Soviet partisans behind the Wehrmacht lines. After the war several Einsatzkommando officers were tried, in the Einsatzgruppen trial, convicted of war crimes and hanged.

As a military term, the German Einsatzkommando (Operational Command) is roughly equivalent to the English task force and is still in use for German paramilitary organizations, such as SEK and Einsatzkommando Cobra.

Parker Perry
Parker Perry

The first eight Einsatzgruppen of World War II were formed in 1939 for the invasion of Poland. They were composed of the Gestapo, Kripo and SD functionaries, and deployed during the classified Operation Tannenberg (codename for murder of Polish civilians) and the Intelligenzaktion lasting till the spring of 1940; followed by the German AB-Aktion which ended in late 1940. Long before the attack on Poland, the Nazis prepared a detailed list identifying more than 61,000 Polish targets by name,[9] with the help of German minority living in the Second Polish Republic. The list was printed as a 192-page-book called Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen (Special Prosecution Book–Poland), and composed only of names and birthdates. It included politicians, scholars, actors, intelligentsia, doctors, lawyers, nobility, priests, officers and numerous others – as the means at the disposal of the SS paramilitary death squads aided by Selbstschutz executioners.[10] By the end of 1939 already, they summarily killed around 50,000 Poles and Jews in the annexed territories, including over 1,000 POWs.[11][12][13][14]

Jordan King
Jordan King

cool

Lincoln Fisher
Lincoln Fisher

Einsatzgruppe I or EG I–Wien (under the command of SS-Standartenführer Bruno Streckenbach),[15] deployed with the 14th Army
Einsatzkommando 1/I: SS-Sturmbannführer Ludwig Hahn
Einsatzkommando 2/I: SS-Sturmbannführer Bruno Müller
Einsatzkommando 3/I: SS-Sturmbannführer Alfred Hasselberg
Einsatzkommando 4/I: SS-Sturmbannführer Karl Brunner
Einsatzgruppe II or EG II–Oppeln (under SS-Obersturmbannführer Emanuel Schäfer),[15] deployed with the 10th Army
Einsatzkommando 1/II: SS-Obersturmbannführer Otto Sens
Einsatzkommando 2/II: SS-Sturmbannführer Karl-Heinz Rux
Einsatzgruppe III or EG III–Breslau (under SS-Obersturmbannführer und Regierungsrat Hans Fischer),[15] deployed with the 8th Army
Einsatzkommando 1/III: SS-Sturmbannführer Wilhelm Scharpwinkel
Einsatzkommando 2/III: SS-Sturmbannführer Fritz Liphardt

Massacres in Piaśnica
Digging their own graves
Before execution led by EK–16
Shooting in Piaśnica

Einsatzgruppe IV or EG IV–Dramburg (under SS-Brigadeführer Lothar Beutel,[15] replaced by Josef Albert Meisinger in October 1939) deployed with the 4th Army in Pomorze (see also EG-V)
Einsatzkommando 1/IV: SS-Sturmbannführer und Regierungsrat Helmut Bischoff
Einsatzkommando 2/IV: SS-Sturmbannführer und Regierungsrat Walter Hammer
Einsatzgruppe V or EG V–Allenstein (under SS-Standartenfürer Ernst Damzog),[15] deployed with the 3rd Army
Einsatzkommando 1/V: SS-Sturmbannführer und Regierungsrat Heinz Gräfe
Einsatzkommando 2/V: SS-Sturmbannführer und Regierungsrat Robert Schefe
Einsatzkommando 3/V: SS-Sturmbannführer und Regierungsrat Walter Albath
Einsatzgruppe VI (under SS-Oberführer Erich Naumann), deployed in Wielkopolska area
Einsatzkommando 1/VI: SS-Sturmbannführer Franz Sommer
Einsatzkommando 2/VI: SS-Sturmbannführer Gerhard Flesch

Blake Ross
Blake Ross

The SECR N class was a type of 2-6-0 ("mogul") steam locomotive designed in 1914 by Richard Maunsell for mixed-traffic duties on the South Eastern and Chatham Railway (SECR). Built between 1917 and 1934, it was the first non-Great Western Railway (GWR) type to use and improve upon the basic design principles established by GWR Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) George Jackson Churchward.[2] The N class was based on the GWR 4300 Class design, improved with Midland Railway concepts.[3]

The N class was mechanically similar to the SECR K class 2-6-4 passenger tank engine, also by Maunsell. It influenced future 2-6-0 development in Britain and provided the basis for the 3 cylinder N1 class of 1922. Production was delayed by the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, and the first N class rolled out of Ashford Works in 1917, three years after design work was completed. The class replaced obsolete 0-6-0s as part of the SECR's fleet standardisation, as they used parts interchangeable with those of other classes.

Lucas Nelson
Lucas Nelson

Three factors dictated the type of locomotive that could run on the South Eastern and Chatham Railway (SECR): increased freight and passenger train loadings, poor track quality, and weak, lightly built bridges.[5] An increasing number of passengers used the SECR to reach the cross-Channel ferries at Dover and Folkestone between 1910 and 1913, and heavy goods trains between Tonbridge and Hither Green marshalling yard stretched the capabilities of existing locomotives and infrastructure.[6] On the lines of the former London, Chatham and Dover Railway (LCDR), flint beach pebbles on a bed of ash had been used for ballast.[7][8] Conventional track ballast has irregular shapes that "lock" together to keep the track in place, whereas the smooth pebbles used by the LCDR failed to prevent track movement under strain.[7] The economies in construction meant that only locomotives with low axle loadings could run safely on the track.[9] These restrictions meant that the SECR was unable to follow a coherent locomotive strategy that reduced costs and increased serviceability. The railway's Operating Department had to use mismatched classes of underpowered and obsolete 4-4-0 and 0-6-0 locomotives because they could run within the restrictions imposed by the infrastructure.[10] This meant frequent double-heading that increased operational costs.[9]

Richard Maunsell was appointed CME of the SECR in 1913, following the retirement of Harry Wainwright due to ill health. Wainwright left a legacy of competent but unspectacular locomotives that struggled to cope with the increased train lengths and loadings.[5] Maunsell took control of the short-term situation by improving existing designs, and he introduced new engines to progressively replace obsolete classes.[11] New designs could also cut costs on the SECR, as one capable mixed-traffic locomotive could undertake the work of two separate passenger or freight types.[9] The first new design was to become Maunsell's N class 2-6-0.

Eli Hernandez
Eli Hernandez

The N class was designed by Maunsell in 1914 to provide a sturdy mixed-traffic locomotive with high route availability.[12] Intended to replace several obsolete 0-6-0 types, the N class was the first step in the SECR's fleet standardisation programme, which also included the K class 2-6-4T passenger tank locomotive.[12] Maunsell enlisted the help of former GWR engineer Harold Holcroft, who suggested that a 2-6-0 wheel arrangement would allow the class to run on the poor-quality track in north Kent.[2] This arrangement allowed for a longer wheelbase with leading axle to permit greater stability at speed on tight track curves, which had constrained the size of locomotives operating on the SECR. A longer locomotive could also accommodate a larger boiler than an 0-6-0, giving the N class sufficient power to avoid double-heading of locomotives on heavier trains.[12]

Juan Green
Juan Green

The N class incorporated the principles of power and reliability established by George Churchward, using a Belpaire firebox that sloped downwards towards the cab instead of a round-topped version, a regulator located in the smokebox, long-travel valves for free running up to 70 mph (110 km/h), a sharply tapered and domeless boiler, and a right-hand driving position.[12] These features are attributed to Holcroft, who worked on the GWR 4300 class before joining the SECR.[13] The boiler was intended to become a standard component for use on future SECR locomotive designs, thereby reducing building times and improving organisation at the works.[14] The size was constrained by the heavier axle-loading of Maunsell's proposed 2-6-4 tank locomotive variant of the N class, the K class, and was consequently smaller than was otherwise possible on the 2-6-0 chassis.[14] The need to reduce overall weight also meant that the latter would feature lightly braced frames.[14]

Noah Perez
Noah Perez

Maunsell's Chief Locomotive Draughtsman, James Clayton, brought functional Midland Railway influences to the design, such as the shape of the cab and the drumhead-type smokebox, which sat on a saddle that was of wider diameter than the fully lagged and clad boiler.[14] Clayton was also responsible for the tender and chimney designs.[14] Snifting valves were provided to prevent vacuum formation in the cylinders when the locomotive was stationary, and the outside Walschaerts valve gear incorporated single slide-bars and piston tail rods.[9] Innovations added by Maunsell's team included steam-powered locomotive brakes, locating the boiler water top feed inside a dome-like cover with external clackboxes and water feed pipes mounted on either side, and a new type of superheater that segregated saturated and superheated steam.[9] Maunsell also incorporated a screw reverser to control valve events, which was easier to maintain than the complex steam reverser configuration of previous SECR designs.[9] All components were standardised for interchange with similar locomotive classes to ease maintenance and reduce production costs.[7]

Lincoln Cox
Lincoln Cox

Production of the first batch was delayed by the outbreak of the First World War. Assembly began towards the end of the war and the first locomotive, No. 810, emerged from Ashford Works for proving trials in July 1917,[12] one month after the first K class tank, whose design was derived from the N class.[12] Entering service in August 1917, No. 810 was trialled for three years before another 15 locomotives (Nos. 811–825) were ordered in 1919.[15] These were built between 1920 and 1923; their construction delayed by a backlog of repairs caused by the war.[15] The first left Ashford Works in June 1920, featuring a greater superheating surface area within the boiler as a result of operational experience with No. 810.[15] All locomotives were equipped with 3,500-imperial-gallon (15,911 l) tenders.[13]

In 1922 modifications were made to No. 822 during assembly. This was because production delays at Ashford prevented the building of a proposed 3-cylinder design drawn-up in 1919.[16] Maunsell and Holcroft revised No. 822's cylinder arrangement to accommodate a third inside cylinder fitted between the frames.[15] The outside cylinders were also reduced to 16 in × 26 in (406 mm × 660 mm) diameter to accommodate the inside cylinder and its associated valve linkages.[16] The differences between No. 822 and the rest of the N class meant that this locomotive was re-designated as the 1919 proposal, becoming the prototype of the SR N1 class when completed in March 1923.[16]

Ian Barnes
Ian Barnes

The absolute state of the EU

Adam Reyes
Adam Reyes

The first batch of the N class proved successful in service, and few problems were encountered after settling-in.[17] The Ministry of Supply drew up a contract for a second batch to the same specification – to be built at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich.[15] The government backing came as part of a proposal to nationalise the railways, which would require a standard fleet of locomotives to promote economies in production and maintenance.[18] The nationalisation proposal was abandoned; instead, the government passed the 1921 Railways Act, which grouped the railways into the "Big Four" in 1923.[12] Building of the second batch went ahead to retain skilled labour at Woolwich, but the fabrication of 119 boilers for allocation to the kits of parts was contracted-out because of limited production capacity at Woolwich and Ashford;[18] the North British Locomotive Company built 85, Robert Stephenson and Company 20, and Kitson & Co. 14.[1] By 1924, the prefabricated components stored at Woolwich formed 100 complete N class kits for purchase from the government.

Justin Sanders
Justin Sanders

nigger

Carson Fisher
Carson Fisher

based HK

Adrian Phillips
Adrian Phillips

Fucking based

Nolan Morgan
Nolan Morgan

we're literally all on 4channel now lads

Hudson Ross
Hudson Ross

oh my days other boards have janny vigilantes

Wyatt Hill
Wyatt Hill

jowforums.com/thread/6983438/miscellaneous
jowforums.com/thread/6983438/miscellaneous
jowforums.com/thread/6983438/miscellaneous
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